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Human Development Theory

In the discussion of the soul (anima) is known that humans have perfection than other creatures. Humans in life experience changes both physical and psychological (physiological and psychological). Many factors determine human development, resulting in the emergence of various theories about human development. The theories are as follows:

1. 1.Theory of Nativism The pioneer of this theory is Athur Schopenhauer. This theory states that human development is influenced by nativus or innate human factors since birth. This theory asserts that humans have certain qualities since birth that influence and determine the state of the individual concerned. Environmental and educational factors are ignored and said to have no effect on human development. 
This theory has the view as if human nature can not be changed because it has been determined by its derivative properties. If from good offspring it will be good and if from the offspring of evil it will be evil. So human nature is permanent can not be changed. This theory views education as a pessimistic and discrediting the human classes that "coincidently" have offspring that are not good.

2. Theories of empiricism Unlike previous theories, this theory sees that individual development is influenced and determined by experiences gained during development from birth to adulthood. This theory considers that experience is including education and association. The explanation of this theory is that human is basically a white paper that has no color and the writing will be what will humans depend on what will be written. This theory is more optimistic view of education, even education is an important factor to determine human development. This theory was spearheaded by John Locke.
3. Convergence Theory. This theory is a combination of the two theories above that states that innate and experience has a role in influencing and determining the development of individuals. The assumption of this theory is based on William Stern's experiments on two twins. The twins have the same offspring, but once separated in different environments the twins turn out to have different properties. From this the theory concludes that the nature of heredity or innate is not a major factor that determines the development of individuals but also supported by environmental factors.

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Human carriage factor in this theory is referred to as endogenous factors that include physical factors such as white skin, curly hair, black hair. In addition to the factor of physical factors there are also psychological factors called temperament. Temperament is different from character or character. Character or character is the whole of human nature that is named in everyday behavior as a result of innate and environmental and is not constant. If the character or character is not constant, the temperament is constant. In addition to temperament and physical properties, other endogenous factors present in humans are aptitude factors. 
Aptitude is the potential that allows the individual to develop in one direction.

For environmental factors referred to in this theory is called as exogenous factors that are factors that come from outside the human self in the form of experience, nature, education and so popularly referred to as milieu. The difference between the environment and education is the liveliness of the process. If the environment is passive, it does not force individuals to depend on whether to take advantage of existing opportunities or benefits. While education is active and systematic and run full awareness

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